20$ for a small work
FullBRing, Nov 23 2010
20$ for the first who give a correction of this text asap. Will be shipped on neteller or paypal. Not mine, friends of mine but im fkn lazy for doing it for her.
What sort of model for the French welfare state in the 21st century ?
The welfare state is expensive. Too expensive for those who want to limit the expenses without estimating nevertheless benefits. However, it remains necessary to the social cohesion and to the working of the economy. Today, a new a welfare state has to appear, which will instruct better and more the French population.
Social protection in France is based on the principle of solidarity: the commitment is declared in the first article of the French Code of Social Security. The principle is used in a number of different senses. The idea seems, at first sight, to refer to co-operative mutual support. Some writers apply the term in relation to “mutualist” groups (friendly societies) and emphasise that people insured within national schemes (les assurés sociaux) are called to contribute and profit on an equal footing. Others stress that relationships of solidarity are based in interdependence. Solidarity is regularly understood, in this context, in terms of common action, mutual responsibility and shared risks.
The French system of welfare is a complex, patchwork quilt of services. This kind of arrangement is relatively expensive, and much of the focus of social policy in recent years has fallen on the control of spending, called “the hole in the social” (le trou de la Sécu). The main areas of concern are not dependency or unemployment, but pensions, because of the special privileges accorded to particular occupational groups, and spending on health care, where the stress on independent, market-led services (la médicine libérale) presents considerable problems in cost control.
Its important to notice that, the demographic ageing has too a consequant impact on the expenses and created an increase of needs of coverage care of the old dependent-persons.
All in all, since 1980, the expenses of social welfare increased from 2 % to 4 %. Criticisms are listened to denounce the financial weight of the system. Even if, its cost is important, it’s not nevertheless unbearable. Indeed, France is not the most lavish: 7870 euro are spent on the social welfare on average a year and per capita. It is situated behind Belgium ( 8240 euro), Austria ( 8380 euro), Denmark ( 8400 euro), the Netherlands ( 8770 ), Sweden ( 8840 euro). It seems necessary to develop the French social model of protection, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and answering the new needs.
Unfortunately, since the beginingof the 2000s, the determination to limit the increase of the expenses is especially translated by a “hardening” of the conditions of access in social welfares for the most delicate and in one tendency to cross-post a part of the coverage on the private insurances.
On the other hand, it seems difficult to speak about the reform of the French social welfare without speaking about the abrogation of the new law on the pensions …The minimum age of retirement in France is crossed from 60 to 62 years. The hardness of the work is only little taken into account: only the recognized workers disabled person will be authorized to retire in 60 years. So, all other workers who were exposed to risks subject to reduce their life expectancy, but who still have no declared handicap, are not taken into account. Maybe, it will be necessary that the reform was accompanied with mechanisms for guide seniors and the most fragile and help them to cope with the chances, the grims of the life?
Even if the financial difficulties of the health insurance and the pensions are in the centres of the debates today, it is especially at the level of the unemployment that the French system failed. The opinion has dress rehearsal think that the French unemployment is due to a lack of motivation. Now, the notion of equality of opportunity should be rethought, in a wage society very competitive and subjected more and more to the international competition.
My ps your UB
FullBRing, Oct 06 2009
Need 1K to be transfer from ps to ub. Will swap with well known lper only. Can send first if this condition is filled, possibility of making it by increments. see you
FullBRing, Jul 15 2009